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THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND INNER RESOURCES


imageTHE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND INNER RESOURCES Much is expected of a leader throughout a change process. It takes courage, a sense of purpose, the ability to manage your emotions, high integrity and a wide range of skills to lead change ... [full story]


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Stacey and Shaw, complex responsive processes: political, flux and transformation


imageStacey and Shaw, complex responsive processes: political, flux and transformation There is yet another school of thought represented by people such as Ralph Stacey (2001) and Patricia Shaw (2002). These writers use the metaphor of flux and transformation to view organizations. ... [full story]


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Leading change


imageLeading change INTRODUCTION In this chapter we look at the leader’s role in the change process. The objectives of the chapter are to: enable leaders of change to explore the different roles they, and their colleagues need to play in a change process; identify ... [full story]


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Leadership linked to organizational metaphors Metaphor


imageLeadership linked to organizational metaphors Metaphor Nature of change Leader’s role Type of leadership required Typical pitfalls for the leader Machine The designed end state can be worked towards. Resistance must be managed. Change needs to be planned and controlled. Chief designer and ... [full story]


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VISIONARY LEADERSHIP


imageVISIONARY LEADERSHIP The first basic ingredient of leadership is a guiding vision. The leader has a clear idea of what he wants to do – professionally and personally – and the strength to persist in the face of setbacks, even failures. ... [full story]


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Bennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders


imageBennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders Warren Bennis identified three basic ingredients of leadership: a guiding vision; passion; integrity. He also developed a useful comparison of the differences between management and leadership (see Table 4.2) which unpacks some of the different qualities of a ... [full story]


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Managers and leaders A manager


imageManagers and leaders A manager A leader Administers Innovates Is a copy Is an original Maintains Develops Focuses on systems and structure Focuses on people Relies on control Inspires trust Has a short-range view Has a long-range perspective Asks how and when Asks why Has his eye on the bottom line Has his eye on ... [full story]


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Kotter on what leaders really do


imageKotter on what leaders really do Kotter (1996) echoes the ideas of Bennis. He says, ‘we have raised a generation of very talented people to be managers, not leader/managers, and vision is not a component of effective management. The management equivalent ... [full story]


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Bass: proof that visionary leadership works!


imageBass: proof that visionary leadership works! Bass (in Bryman, 1992) developed the notion of transformation leadership, which many managers find meaningful and helpful. He distinguished between transactional leadership and transformational leadership (see box), and identified through extensive research that charismatic and ... [full story]


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Senge et al: systemic model: political, organism, flux and transformation


imageSenge et al: systemic model: political, organism, flux and transformation If you are interested in sustainable change, then the ideas and concepts in Senge et al (1999) will be of interest to you. This excellent book, The Dance of Change, seeks ... [full story]


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Carnall, change management model: political, organism


imageCarnall, change management model: political, organism Colin Carnall (1990) has produced a useful model that brings together a number of perspectives on change. He says that the effective management of change depends on the level of management skill in the following ... [full story]


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Organizations as flux and transformation


imageOrganizations as flux and transformation Viewing organizations as flux and transformation takes us into areas such as complexity, chaos and paradox. This view of organizational life sees the organization as part of the environment, rather than as distinct from it. So ... [full story]


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MODELS OF AND APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE


imageMODELS OF AND APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Now we have set the backdrop to organizational behaviour and our assumptions about how things really work, let us now examine ways of looking at organizational change as represented by the range of models ... [full story]


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Lewin, three-step model: organism, machine


imageLewin, three-step model: organism, machine Kurt Lewin (1951) developed his ideas about organizational change from the perspective of the organism metaphor. His model of organizational change is well known and much quoted by managers today. Lewin is responsible for introducing force ... [full story]


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Bullock and Batten, planned change: machine


imageBullock and Batten, planned change: machine Bullock and Batten’s (1985) phases of planned change draw on the disciplines of project management. There are many similar ‘steps to changing your organization’ models to choose from. We have chosen Bullock and Batten’s: exploration; planning; action; integration. Exploration involves ... [full story]


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Kotter, eight-steps: machine, political, organism


imageKotter, eight-steps: machine, political, organism Kotter’s (1995) ‘eight steps to transforming your organisation’ goes a little further than the basic machine metaphor. Kotter’s eight-step model derives from analysis of his consulting practice with 100 different organizations going through change. His research ... [full story]


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Beckhard and Harris, change formula: organism


imageBeckhard and Harris, change formula: organism Beckhard and Harris (1987) developed their change formula from some original work by Gelicher. The change formula is a concise way of capturing the process of change, and identifying the factors that need to be ... [full story]


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Nadler and Tushman, congruence model: political, organism


imageNadler and Tushman, congruence model: political, organism Nadler and Tushman’s congruence model takes a different approach to looking at the factors influencing the success of the change process (Nadler and Tushman, 1997). This model aims to help us understand the dynamics ... [full story]


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William Bridges, managing the transition: machine, organism, flux and transformation


imageWilliam Bridges, managing the transition: machine, organism, flux and transformation Bridges (1991) makes a clear distinction between planned change and transition. He labels transition as the more complex of the two, and focuses on enhancing our understanding of what goes on ... [full story]


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Gardner: the need for leaders to embody a story


imageGardner: the need for leaders to embody a story Howard Gardner’s (1996) influential research into the nature of successful leaders gave rise to some interesting lessons about visionary leadership. He chose eleven 20th century leaders who have really made a difference, ... [full story]


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Heifetz and Laurie: vision is not the answer


imageHeifetz and Laurie: vision is not the answer Heifetz and Laurie (1997) say that vision is not the answer. They say that the senior executive needs to alter his or her approach to match the needs of 21st century organizations. They ... [full story]


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Goleman: leadership that gets results


imageGoleman: leadership that gets results In his quest to discover the links between emotional intelligence and business results, Daniel Goleman (2000) developed a set of six distinct leadership styles through studying the performance of over 3,800 executives worldwide. These six leadership ... [full story]


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Our summary of Goleman’s six leadership styles Coercive


imageOur summary of Goleman’s six leadership styles   Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic Pace-setting Coaching Short defination Telling people what to do when Persuading and attracting people with an engaging vision Building relationships with people through use of positive feedback Asking the team what they ... [full story]


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Goleman: the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders


imageGoleman: the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders Underpinning Goleman’s six leadership style is his work on emotional intelligence (see Goleman, 1998). This is worth examining as it sets out all the competencies required to be a successful leader. Goleman’s research ... [full story]


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DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE


imageDIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE In this section we examine the different phases of the change process, to identify the need for a leader to perform different skills or activities during each phase. We do this by using three ... [full story]


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Cameron and Green: inner and outer leadership


imageCameron and Green: inner and outer leadership In our own experience of working with leaders on change processes, it is important to establish phases of change so that plans can be made and achievements recognized. This phasing also enables a leader ... [full story]


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Kotter: the importance of getting the early steps right


imageKotter: the importance of getting the early steps right Kotter’s eight steps to transforming your organization (see Chapter 3) form a comprehensive guide to tackling the process of change. Kotter says that good leaders must get all eight steps right. However, ... [full story]


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Rosabeth Moss Kanter: learning how to persevere


imageRosabeth Moss Kanter: learning how to persevere Rosabeth Moss Kanter (2002) highlights the need for keeping going in the change process, even when it gets tough. She says that too often executives announce a plan, launch a task force and then ... [full story]


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Bridges: leading people through transition


imageBridges: leading people through transition William Bridges (1991) has very clear ideas about what leaders need to do to make change work. Bridges says that what often stops people from making new beginnings in a change process is that they have ... [full story]


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LEADERSHIP STYLES AND SKILLS


imageLEADERSHIP STYLES AND SKILLS Much has been written about leadership skills and leadership style. We have chosen the work of Goleman because we find it illuminating and useful when working with leaders at any stage in a change process. His work ... [full story]


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O’Neill: four key roles for successful change


imageO’Neill: four key roles for successful change Mary Beth O’Neill (2000) agrees with Senge’s idea of communities of leaders, and identifies four specific leadership roles necessary for successful and sustained change efforts in organizations. She uses Daryl Conner’s work on family ... [full story]


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Jean Lipman-Blumen: leaders need to make connections rather than build one vision


imageJean Lipman-Blumen: leaders need to make connections rather than build one vision Jean Lipman-Blumen (2002) says that vision is no longer the answer. She encourages leaders to search for meaning and make connections, rather than build one vision. She notes that ... [full story]



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