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ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY


imageROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY There are various views about the role a leader should play in the change process (see Table 4.1): The machine metaphor implies that the leader sits at the top of the organization, setting goals and driving them through ... [full story]


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20th century organizations and 21st century organizations Structure


image20th century organizations and 21st century organizations   Structure Systems Culture Leadership of change 20th century organizations • bureaucratic; • multileveled; • organized with the expectation that senior management will manage; • characterized by policies and procedures that create many complicated internal interdependencies. • depend ... [full story]


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Leadership for the 21st century: less vision, more connection?


imageLeadership for the 21st century: less vision, more connection? The world is changing. Organizations are more dispersed and less hierarchical. More information is more freely available. People want more from their jobs than they used to. Does this then change the ... [full story]


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Jean Lipman-Blumen: leaders need to make connections rather than build one vision


imageJean Lipman-Blumen: leaders need to make connections rather than build one vision Jean Lipman-Blumen (2002) says that vision is no longer the answer. She encourages leaders to search for meaning and make connections, rather than build one vision. She notes that ... [full story]


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Heifetz and Laurie: vision is not the answer


imageHeifetz and Laurie: vision is not the answer Heifetz and Laurie (1997) say that vision is not the answer. They say that the senior executive needs to alter his or her approach to match the needs of 21st century organizations. They ... [full story]


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Gardner: the need for leaders to embody a story


imageGardner: the need for leaders to embody a story Howard Gardner’s (1996) influential research into the nature of successful leaders gave rise to some interesting lessons about visionary leadership. He chose eleven 20th century leaders who have really made a difference, ... [full story]


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Bass: proof that visionary leadership works!


imageBass: proof that visionary leadership works! Bass (in Bryman, 1992) developed the notion of transformation leadership, which many managers find meaningful and helpful. He distinguished between transactional leadership and transformational leadership (see box), and identified through extensive research that charismatic and ... [full story]


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Kotter on what leaders really do


imageKotter on what leaders really do Kotter (1996) echoes the ideas of Bennis. He says, ‘we have raised a generation of very talented people to be managers, not leader/managers, and vision is not a component of effective management. The management equivalent ... [full story]


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Managers and leaders A manager


imageManagers and leaders A manager A leader Administers Innovates Is a copy Is an original Maintains Develops Focuses on systems and structure Focuses on people Relies on control Inspires trust Has a short-range view Has a long-range perspective Asks how and when Asks why Has his eye on the bottom line Has his eye on ... [full story]


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Bennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders


imageBennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders Warren Bennis identified three basic ingredients of leadership: a guiding vision; passion; integrity. He also developed a useful comparison of the differences between management and leadership (see Table 4.2) which unpacks some of the different qualities of a ... [full story]


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VISIONARY LEADERSHIP


imageVISIONARY LEADERSHIP The first basic ingredient of leadership is a guiding vision. The leader has a clear idea of what he wants to do – professionally and personally – and the strength to persist in the face of setbacks, even failures. ... [full story]


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Leadership linked to organizational metaphors Metaphor


imageLeadership linked to organizational metaphors Metaphor Nature of change Leader’s role Type of leadership required Typical pitfalls for the leader Machine The designed end state can be worked towards. Resistance must be managed. Change needs to be planned and controlled. Chief designer and ... [full story]


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Leading change


imageLeading change INTRODUCTION In this chapter we look at the leader’s role in the change process. The objectives of the chapter are to: enable leaders of change to explore the different roles they, and their colleagues need to play in a change process; identify ... [full story]


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Stacey and Shaw, complex responsive processes: political, flux and transformation


imageStacey and Shaw, complex responsive processes: political, flux and transformation There is yet another school of thought represented by people such as Ralph Stacey (2001) and Patricia Shaw (2002). These writers use the metaphor of flux and transformation to view organizations. ... [full story]


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Senge et al: systemic model: political, organism, flux and transformation


imageSenge et al: systemic model: political, organism, flux and transformation If you are interested in sustainable change, then the ideas and concepts in Senge et al (1999) will be of interest to you. This excellent book, The Dance of Change, seeks ... [full story]


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Carnall, change management model: political, organism


imageCarnall, change management model: political, organism Colin Carnall (1990) has produced a useful model that brings together a number of perspectives on change. He says that the effective management of change depends on the level of management skill in the following ... [full story]


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William Bridges, managing the transition: machine, organism, flux and transformation


imageWilliam Bridges, managing the transition: machine, organism, flux and transformation Bridges (1991) makes a clear distinction between planned change and transition. He labels transition as the more complex of the two, and focuses on enhancing our understanding of what goes on ... [full story]


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Nadler and Tushman, congruence model: political, organism


imageNadler and Tushman, congruence model: political, organism Nadler and Tushman’s congruence model takes a different approach to looking at the factors influencing the success of the change process (Nadler and Tushman, 1997). This model aims to help us understand the dynamics ... [full story]


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Beckhard and Harris, change formula: organism


imageBeckhard and Harris, change formula: organism Beckhard and Harris (1987) developed their change formula from some original work by Gelicher. The change formula is a concise way of capturing the process of change, and identifying the factors that need to be ... [full story]


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Kotter, eight-steps: machine, political, organism


imageKotter, eight-steps: machine, political, organism Kotter’s (1995) ‘eight steps to transforming your organisation’ goes a little further than the basic machine metaphor. Kotter’s eight-step model derives from analysis of his consulting practice with 100 different organizations going through change. His research ... [full story]


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Bullock and Batten, planned change: machine


imageBullock and Batten, planned change: machine Bullock and Batten’s (1985) phases of planned change draw on the disciplines of project management. There are many similar ‘steps to changing your organization’ models to choose from. We have chosen Bullock and Batten’s: exploration; planning; action; integration. Exploration involves ... [full story]


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Lewin, three-step model: organism, machine


imageLewin, three-step model: organism, machine Kurt Lewin (1951) developed his ideas about organizational change from the perspective of the organism metaphor. His model of organizational change is well known and much quoted by managers today. Lewin is responsible for introducing force ... [full story]


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MODELS OF AND APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE


imageMODELS OF AND APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Now we have set the backdrop to organizational behaviour and our assumptions about how things really work, let us now examine ways of looking at organizational change as represented by the range of models ... [full story]


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Organizations as flux and transformation


imageOrganizations as flux and transformation Viewing organizations as flux and transformation takes us into areas such as complexity, chaos and paradox. This view of organizational life sees the organization as part of the environment, rather than as distinct from it. So ... [full story]


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Organizations as organisms


imageOrganizations as organisms This metaphor of organizational life sees the organization as a living, adaptive system. Gareth Morgan says, ‘The metaphor suggests that different environments favour different species of organisations based on different methods of organising … congruence with the environment ... [full story]


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Organizations as political systems


imageOrganizations as political systems When we see organizations as political systems we are drawing clear parallels between how organizations are run and systems of political rule. We may refer to ‘democracies’, ‘autocracy’ or even ‘anarchy’ to describe what is going on ... [full story]


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Organizations as machines


imageOrganizations as machines The machine metaphor is a well-used metaphor which is worth revisiting to examine its implications for organizational change. Gareth Morgan says, ‘When we think of organizations as machines, we begin to see them as rational enterprises designed and ... [full story]


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Four different approaches to the change process Metaphor


imageFour different approaches to the change process Metaphor How change is tackled Who is responsible Guiding principles Machine Senior managers define targets and timescale. Consultants advise on techniques. Change programme is rolled out from the top down. Training is given ... [full story]


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HOW ORGANIZATIONS REALLY WORK


imageHOW ORGANIZATIONS REALLY WORK We all have our own assumptions about how organizations work, developed through a combination of experience and education. The use of metaphor is an important way in which we express these assumptions. Some people talk about organizations ... [full story]


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Organizational change


imageOrganizational change OVERVIEW This chapter tackles the issue of organizational change. How does the process of organizational change happen? Must change be initiated and driven through by one strong individual? Or can it be planned collectively by a powerful group of people, ... [full story]


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Teams going through change Team type


imageTeams going through change Team type Group Work Parallel Project Matrix Propensity to initiate change Dependent on nature and composition of group Limited Limited in terms of organizational impact Potentially high depending on integration into organization Fair given propensity to address change Propensity to adapt ... [full story]


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HOW WELL TEAMS INITIATE AND ADAPT TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE


imageHOW WELL TEAMS INITIATE AND ADAPT TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Throughout the last decades of the 20th century many organizations repeated the mantra, ‘people are our greatest assets’, and many would then apologize profusely when they were forced into downsizing or ‘rightsizing’ ... [full story]



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